Account For Armed Conflicts And Peace Agreements
Conflicts in Mali and Colombia began in the early 1960s. In Mali, several groups in the northern region have sometimes rebelled against the central authorities in the south. The recent rebellion was launched in early 2012 by the Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA). With the help of temporary alliances with Islamic jihadist groups, the MNLA effectively drove the Malian army out of northern Mali and proclaimed the independent state of Azawad on 6 April 2012.2 A political crisis triggered by a coup in March 2012 provoked regional and international caution, particularly from its former colonial power, France. In January 2013, as Islamist jihadist groups advanced on Bamako, France intervened – at the request of Mali`s interim president, Dioncounda Traoré. French troops, in cooperation with Malian troops, regional states and Western forces, halted the advance of Bamako. Since then, the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and the European Union`s small training missions have contributed to the country`s stabilization. Comment In state-based conflicts, the „site“ is not identical to the geographic location of the fights, but represents the entity in which the incompatibility is found. However, in practice, the „site“ often corresponds to the geographical location of violence. Opposition groups may not be able to operate within certain states and instead fight a government in another geographical location, which may be far removed from the state where the incompatibility is found.
For example, the conflict between the United States and Al Qaeda, where most of the fighting takes place not in the United States, but in Pakistan and Afghanistan. See Battle-related deaths The minimum number of 25 deaths per calendar year is required to include a new conflict in the UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia database. With regard to state-related conflicts, 25 combat-related deaths are required by declared incompatibility and Dyad. In the event of non-state conflict, no incompatibility is necessary and only the 25 combat-related deaths are used by calendar year and Dyad criterion. Comment From the UCDP`s point of view, a peace agreement cannot survive if the main parties no longer participate. If a party formally withdraws from a peace agreement, the agreement is considered complete. It is sometimes difficult to know whether a peace agreement is over. For example, a party may be officially engaged in the peace agreement, but secretly has militias at war on the ground. In such a situation, the party should be judged on its sincerity of commitment in this process. While the violence clearly shows that one of the parties has left the agreement, the Panel does not appear sincere in its commitment to the peace or peace agreement; the agreement must therefore be interpreted as closed.
Comment The main belligerents who first declared incompatibility must be ruling parties for a conflict to be considered intergovernmental. The criteria of incompatibility are essential, because the existence of ruling parties on both sides of a conflict is not sufficient to conclude that we are facing an intergovernmental conflict, since such cases may even include internal armed conflicts involving foreigners/internationalized. Comment As a country can experience several conflicts; We need a way to tell the difference between them. The incompatibility test applies only to state conflicts and is not a prerequisite for non-state conflicts and unilateral violence.